- How is aspirin excreted from the body?
- What is the term for the study of what drugs do to the body quizlet?
- What is stimulation effect of drug?
- Is caffeine a drug?
- What is the steady state of a drug?
- What affects pharmacokinetics of a drug?
- Which drug may prevent an asthma attack?
- What is pharmacokinetics of a drug?
- What is excreted faster in basic urine?
- What is a PK study?
- Is the study of how genetic variations can affect people’s responses to drugs?
- What is half life of a drug?
- How do you determine if a drug is a weak acid or base?
- Can drugs be excreted through the lungs?
- What drugs release dopamine in the brain?
- Where are drugs metabolized?
- How does drug excreted from the body?
- What is an antagonist drug?
How is aspirin excreted from the body?
Excretion of salicylates occurs mainly through the kidney, by the processes of glomerular filtration and tubular excretion, in the form of free salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and, additionally, phenolic and acyl glucuronides Label..
What is the term for the study of what drugs do to the body quizlet?
Pharmacognosy. Study of what drugs do to the body. Pharmacodynamics.
What is stimulation effect of drug?
Large doses of stimulants can cause over-stimulation, causing anxiety, panic, seizures, headaches, stomach cramps, aggression and paranoia. Long-term use of strong stimulants can also cause a number of adverse effects. Stimulants include caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine.
Is caffeine a drug?
Caffeine is defined as a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system, causing increased alertness. Caffeine gives most people a temporary energy boost and elevates mood. Caffeine is in tea, coffee, chocolate, many soft drinks, and pain relievers and other over-the-counter medications.
What is the steady state of a drug?
Steady State This is when the amount of drug in the plasma has built up to a concentration level that is therapeutically effective and as long as regular doses are administered to balance the amount of drug being cleared the drug will continue to be active.
What affects pharmacokinetics of a drug?
Pharmacokinetics of a drug depends on patient-related factors as well as on the drug’s chemical properties. Some patient-related factors (eg, renal function, genetic makeup, sex, age) can be used to predict the pharmacokinetic parameters in populations.
Which drug may prevent an asthma attack?
Leukotriene modifiers, such as montelukast, zafirlukast, and zileuton, also help control asthma. They are anti-inflammatory drugs that prevent the action or synthesis of leukotrienes. Leukotrienes are chemicals made by the body that cause bronchoconstriction.
What is pharmacokinetics of a drug?
Pharmacokinetics is currently defined as the study of the time course of drug absorption, distribution, metabo- lism, and excretion. Clinical pharmacokinetics is the application of pharmacokinetic principles to the safe and effective therapeutic management of drugs in an individual patient.
What is excreted faster in basic urine?
Most drugs are either weak acids or weak bases. In alkaline urine, acidic drugs are more readily ionised. In acidic urine, alkaline drugs are more readily ionised. Ionised substances (also refered to as polar) are more soluble in water so dissolve in the body fluids more readily for excretion.
What is a PK study?
Background: A pharmacokinetic (PK) study of a new drug involves taking several blood samples over a period of time from study participants to determine how the body handles the substance. These studies provide critical information about new drugs.
Is the study of how genetic variations can affect people’s responses to drugs?
Differences in genetic (inherited) makeup among individuals affect what the body does to a drug and what the drug does to the body. The study of genetic differences in the response to drugs is called pharmacogenetics.
What is half life of a drug?
What is a drug’s half-life? The half-life of a drug is the time it takes for the amount of a drug’s active substance in your body to reduce by half. This depends on how the body processes and gets rid of the drug.
How do you determine if a drug is a weak acid or base?
Amines, for example, are basic and have pKa values of approximately 9, while phenols are acidic and typically have pKa values of around 10. The only sure way to know whether a drug is acidic or basic is to learn the functional groups that confer acidity and basicity on a molecule.
Can drugs be excreted through the lungs?
Volatile drugs, such as gaseous anesthetics, alcohol, or drugs with high volatility, are excreted via the lungs into expired air. Biotransformation or drug metabolism is the process by which the drug is chemically converted in the body to a metabolite.
What drugs release dopamine in the brain?
Research has shown that the drugs most commonly abused by humans (including opiates, alcohol, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine) create a neurochemical reaction that significantly increases the amount of dopamine that is released by neurons in the brain’s reward center.
Where are drugs metabolized?
Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism. Once in the liver, enzymes convert prodrugs to active metabolites or convert active drugs to inactive forms. The liver’s primary mechanism for metabolizing drugs is via a specific group of cytochrome P-450 enzymes.
How does drug excreted from the body?
Most drugs (or metabolites) are excreted by the kidneys. Three process can occur in renal excretion: glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and passive reabsorption. Some drugs are eliminated by the liver in the bile and excreted in feces.
What is an antagonist drug?
An antagonist is a drug that blocks opioids by attaching to the opioid receptors without activating them. Antagonists cause no opioid effect and block full agonist opioids. Examples are naltrexone and naloxone.